By exploring innovative models for building lasting peace-a United Nations counter-terrorism policy that also promotes good governance; coordination of the international prosecution of war criminals with local efforts to settle civil wars; increasing the involvement of religious leaders, who have a unique ability to elicit peace settlements; and many others--the authors advance a bold new vision for peacebuilding. Read preview Overview. Miller; Stephanie Pezard; Christopher S. Chivvis; Julie E. Muthoni, Muthuki J.
My Briefcase. Submit a Document The Peacebuilding Initiative is an evolving project, which benefits from the knowledge and experience of its users. The post-conflict economic environment Economic recovery and peacebuilding Economic Recovery and Peacebuilding Sub-topics Most recent evolutions The post-conflict economic environment Post-conflict economies are not "normal" economies and thus require strategies and policies that are specifically tailored for these contexts.
After years or even decades of war, the economies of conflict-ridden societies are invariably seriously weakened and their institutional and physical infrastructures are damaged and in desperate need of repair, 1 if not destroyed to the very foundations. Further complicating the post-conflict environment is the likelihood that the state is extremely weakened, lacks organization and capacity, and does not have the funds to establish recovery activities without international aid. As the United Nations Development Programme UNDP underscores, in such settings, despite the "ostensible end of conflict, insecurity and violence obstruct the launch of reconstruction efforts, resumption of basic services such as electricity, water, and gas the re-establishment of government authority and administrative services at the local level, as well as private and international investment.
Violent conflict can also leave behind a "distorted system of asset acquisition and resource use. Go to Private Sector and The Relationship between Development and Conflict Notably, every post-conflict situation is unique, and each setting has its own vulnerabilities associated with its conflict history.
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For these reasons, traditional economic assumptions about economic behavior do not uncritically lend themselves to easy application in such contexts. In particular, economic costs are not the same for all conflict-affected states. There are factors that contribute to the severity and depth of the negative economic effects of war.
Citing a survey, Gilles Carbonnier points out that war costs appear to be more severe in cases of geographically pervasive conflicts, where the government has lost its capacity to collect taxes and provide basic services. Where "quasi-government structures" were able to maintain core functions, meanwhile, these costs are likely to be more limited.
In addition, international wars tend to have less harmful effects than internal conflicts because the state usually strives to maintain basic social services throughout the country as part of its war effort. In sum, given the challenges and particularities of post-conflict settings, scholars and practitioners are pointing to the need to revisit economic recovery strategies in post-conflict settings in an effort to ensure they do not undermine peace.
Thus, in addition to understanding the type of economy that war leaves behind, it follows that there is a need to understand the type of economy that will potentially transform the structures and dynamics that fed conflict, and work to sustain peace. This section touches on these topics, while aspects of the liberal economic model and peacebuilding are considered in more detail in the debates section. Finally, economic recovery and peacebuilding are considered through each of the consecutive sub-sections on economic recovery that follow in the portal. Go to Peacebuilding and Liberalization The goal Understanding of the goal of economic recovery within the context of peacebuilding is served by a deeper knowledge of the differences between negative and positive peace, which suggest different goals and strategies for economic recovery.
With negative peace, a decisive victory of one warlord over all others will likely "ensure that little may be done to help the majority to recover, and a narrow elite may reap most of the benefits.
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Broad-based recovery, as defined by Tony Addison, for example,ismore in line with a positive peace orientation. It is composed of holistic conceptions of reconstruction and reform, 11 and would alternatively result in an improvement in the incomes and human development indicators of the majority of people, especially the poor. These concepts suggest paradigmatic approaches and strategic visions of peace and development, with economic recovery strategies that respond to a vision of what peace and development encompass.
Understanding and addressing economic sources and drivers of conflict At the heart of peacebuilding lies the challenge of addressing the sources and drivers of conflict. These are often economic in nature, which has obvious and important implications for the design and implementation of economic recovery strategies. The debates surrounding the economic drivers and sources of conflict is expansive and the issues are complex. Rarely is conflict due to one cause, something most scholars have come to accept, refuting monocausal explanations such as that put forth by Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler.
The examination of the economics to conflict relationship therefore features in varying ways and degrees throughout the economic recovery section of the portal. In particular, the popular "greed versus grievance" debate catalyzed by the Collier and Hoeffler theory surrounding economic motives in war 14 are discussed at length, alongside the wider "war economies" literature in the thematic sub-section on natural resources and peacebuilding This section focuses on the role of poverty and inequality, which are often at the center of local grievances.
Poverty and inequality Rebuilding a healthy economy--one that sustains peace-- requires understanding the economic sources and drivers of war and the linkages among poverty, inequality, and conflict and peace. While it seems to be plausible and even generally accepted that poverty and inequality breed conflict--that poverty can create the desperation that fuels conflict, as UNDP and various scholars have argued and proven--the precise nature of the causal linkages is unclear. Specifically, when inequality is held constant and growth happens, poverty falls. At the same time, holding the mean of the distribution constant, when inequality increases, poverty increases.
The challenge then, as Kanbur articulates, is to achieve growth without the inequality increase, or to achieve inequality reduction without a reduction in growth, or both growth and inequality reduction, which would reduce poverty.
As Kanbur states, "Grievances typically start to ferment when one or more socio-economic group defined by ethnicity, region, religion, or some combination of these characteristics experiences a fall in its standard of living in either absolute terms, or relative to another group. However, the causal linkages for both of these links have been deeply questioned over the years, following the implementation of structural adjustment programs in Africa and Latin America in the s and s, in particular, which across the board did not produce the intended results of higher growth and lower poverty.
As Kanbur states, "If poverty is seen as a key determinant of conflict, rapid economic growth naturally follows as a key policy recommendation. However, if the processes of economic growth create group inequalities, leaving identified groups behind relative to the advance of other groups, this can actually engender conflict sufficient to negatively affect the growth process itself. As Sakiko Fukuda-Parr and colleagues have observed, "Development policy can either alleviate or worsen group grievance, the youth bulge and unemployment, environmental pressure and poor governance of natural resources; it can then help reduce or exacerbate the risks of armed conflict recurring.
Macroeconomic stability is essential not only to facilitate economic recovery but also to lay the foundation for sustainable economic growth. Language: English. Brand new Book. In Strategies of Peace, the first volume in the Studies in Strategic Peacebuilding series, fifteen leading scholars propose an imaginative and provocative approach to peacebuilding.
Today the dominant thinking is the "liberal peace," which stresses cease fires, elections, and short run peace operations carried out by international institutions,western states, and local political elites. By exploring innovative models for building lasting peace-a United Nationscounter-terrorism policy that also promotes good governance; coordination of the international prosecution of war criminals with local efforts to settle civil wars; increasing the involvement of religious leaders, who have a unique ability to elicit peace settlements; and many others-the authors advance a bold new vision for peacebuilding.
The Seven Components of Strategic Peacebuilding
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