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Read the full text. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract Greek tradition celebrated a group of seven men known for ethical and practical wisdom, who gained fame as advisers to the powerful, or as political figures in their own right, as well as composers of poetry, laws, instructions, and pithy sayings.

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Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure. Previous Figure Next Figure. Email or Customer ID. Forgot password? Old Password. New Password. Password Changed Successfully Your password has been changed. In , the tide of war turned against the French, with the British launching several major attacks on French posts.

However, the British also launched a successful amphibious attack on Louisbourg that summer, which opened up the St. Lawrence River to British ships. France's Aboriginal allies in the Ohio region concluded a separate peace with the British, forcing the French to abandon Fort Duquesne. In , the British captured Guadeloupe in the Caribbean, and mounted three campaigns against French fortifications on the mainland. Two British armies advanced on Canada while a third captured Niagara.

Both Wolfe and Montcalm died from wounds sustained during the battle. The city surrendered a few days later. On 16 May, he had to abandon the siege when British frigates arrived in the St. Lawrence River, dashing all hope of French reinforcements. In , the British took Martinique, and only the intervention of Spain that year saved the other French islands in the West Indies. The dominance of the British navy was a deciding factor in the outcome of the war.

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It also defeated the French plan to invade Britain. France and Spain had organized a major expedition for the invasion of England, but the British naval victories at Lagos, Portugal, in August and Quiberon Bay, France, in November made this impossible.

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Despite British military and naval victories, by the British were staggering under a colossal national debt. The war minister, William Pitt, was driven out of office in by the new king, George III, and peace negotiations began. The first minister of the French government, the duc de Choiseul, was determined to regain the valuable sugar colonies of Martinique and Guadeloupe, and to retain a base for the Grand Banks fisheries. He also wanted Cape Breton , but had to settle for the tiny islands of St-Pierre and Miquelon as a fishing station.

To force the stubborn Spanish king to agree to peace terms, France ceded the vast Louisiana territory to Spain to compensate for the surrender of Spanish Florida to the British. In addition, Choiseul was convinced that the American colonies, which no longer needed British military protection, would soon strike out for independence.

Despite some opposition in Britain from those who foresaw what Choiseul privately predicted, Britain returned Guadeloupe, rather than Canada, to France in the Treaty of Paris Twelve years later, the American colonies rose in revolt against Britain. Ironically, it was only with the military aid of the French that they finally gained their independence.

Seven Natural Wonders

The Seven Years' War was a crucial turning point in Canadian history. With the Treaty of Paris of , France formally ceded Canada to the British, and largely withdrew from the continent. However, the removal of France as a North American power gave Anglo-American colonists greater confidence, as they no longer needed the protection of the British military.

This led indirectly to the outbreak of the American Revolution in , which would further influence Canadian identity and boundaries, including the influx of Loyalists and the creation of Upper Canada and New Brunswick.

Cameron Reid, eds. From the University of Ottawa website.

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Includes illustrations and other multimedia. From the Canadian Military History Gateway.

From indigo. From YouTube. From The National Battlefields Commission. Click on the images for larger views. With links to detailed biographies of primary participants.

Preparation of Oxygen - Seven Demonstrations

From website for The National Battlefields Commission. Extract from a manuscript journal, relating to the siege of Quebec in Read a digitized copy of a journal that chronicled the siege of Quebec in as recorded by Colonel Malcolm Fraser, then Lieutenant of the 78th Fraser's Highlanders. From archive. Search The Canadian Encyclopedia. Remember me.